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    1. 今日要聞

      山東省印發《規范植保無人機飛防作業提高農作物病蟲害防治質量指導意見》

      2024-04-24 08:33:30 來源:山東省農業農村廳 閱讀量:18393 評論

      導讀:為進一步規范植保無人機飛防作業,提高農作物病蟲害防治質量,促進化學農藥減量增效,根據有關規定,就規范植保無人機飛防作業提高農作物病蟲害防治質量提出如下意見。

        【農機網 通知公告
       
      關于印發《規范植保無人機飛防作業提高農作物病蟲害防治質量指導意見》的通知
       
      魯農技字〔2024〕12號
       
        各市農業農村局:
       
        現將《規范植保無人機飛防作業提高農作物病蟲害防治質量指導意見》印發給你們,請結合當地實際,認真貫徹執行。
       
        山東省農業農村廳
       
        2024年4月18日
       
      規范植保無人機飛防作業提高農作物病蟲害防治質量指導意見
       
        為進一步規范植保無人機飛防作業,提高農作物病蟲害防治質量,促進化學農藥減量增效,根據《農作物病蟲害防治條例》《農作物病蟲害專業化防治服務管理辦法》有關規定,就規范植保無人機飛防作業提高農作物病蟲害防治質量提出如下意見。
       
        一、嚴格掌握飛防作業氣象條件和環境要求
       
        (一)氣象條件。作業時,應無雨,少露,風力3級以內,氣溫5~35℃,相對濕度40%以上。
       
        (二)環境要求。確定作業區域在有關部門規定的禁飛區域之外,評估對周圍區域,如人居環境、水產養殖、養蜂(蠶)等影響風險,設置適宜的隔離帶。
       
        二、科學選配農藥
       
        (一)科學選用農藥。優先選用植保無人機專用劑型,其次是微乳劑、可溶液劑、懸浮劑、干懸浮劑、水乳劑、乳油、油劑等劑型,或高分散度的可濕性粉劑和水分散粒劑。所選擇的藥劑低稀釋倍數情況下均勻分散懸浮或乳化,不出現絮凝、沉淀等現象。
       
        (二)合理混配農藥。應預先進行桶混兼容性試驗,現混現用,一般混配不超過3種農藥,混配后的藥液放置不能超過3小時。
       
        (三)規范添加飛防助劑。應在藥液中添加改性植物油、礦物油等飛防專用助劑,并混合均勻,有效改善農藥藥液性能,提高霧滴沉降、抗飄移、抗蒸發等。
       
        三、規范設置作業參數,確保足夠藥液量
       
        無人機飛防,足夠的藥液量是保證防治效果的首要條件。需根據作物生長情況和靶標病蟲害發生情況,確保足夠施藥液量。作物生長前期,施藥液量建議為1~2升/畝;生長中后期,根據靶標病蟲害發生嚴重程度,施藥液量建議為1.5~3升/畝。對于玉米大豆復合種植中,玉米上的南方銹病、玉米螟、棉鈴蟲,以及大豆上的甜菜夜蛾等中后期病蟲害,建議施藥液量為2~3升/畝。對于大田作物,建議飛行速度為3~5米/秒,最高不超過6米/秒,飛行高度一般設置高于作物冠層2~4米。
       
        四、及時開展作業質量檢測
       
        (一)測定霧滴沉積密度。飛防作業前,在作物上、中、下部位上分別布置霧滴測試卡(水敏紙)進行霧滴沉積密度檢測。沿植保無人飛機預設飛行航線的垂直方向(即沿噴幅方向)呈條帶式均勻布放測試卡,每條帶不少于10個,布放測試卡的條帶長度應與噴幅一致,3次重復,各重復之間的間隔不少于10米。施藥結束后收集測試卡,檢測無人機作業質量。霧滴沉積密度評價標準:內吸性藥劑≥20個/平方厘米;非內吸性藥劑≥30個/平方厘米。
       
        (二)實時查看飛行軌跡及流量數據。大規模統防統治作業,特別是政府購買服務中,應有專門監測人員及時從相應的數據平臺查看飛行速度、飛行高度、作業航線軌跡及畝施藥液量等數據,發現數據參數與設置有較大誤差的,應立即停止作業進行整改。
       
        (三)防治效果調查。飛防作業結束后,應及時開展田間防治效果調查和跟蹤并做好記錄,對于防治效果不理想的田塊,要查找原因并進行補防。對于因地頭、地邊或田中樹木、電線桿、鐵塔等障礙物無人機自主避障覆蓋不到或漏噴區域,要及時組織人工補防。
       
        五、保障措施
       
        (一)強化培訓指導。各級農業農村主管部門應當加強對專業化防治服務組織的技術培訓,并為專業化防治服務組織提供病蟲害發生信息和預測預報服務,指導服務組織提升科學防控水平,促進農作物病蟲害統防統治健康發展。
       
        (二)強化服務組織管理??h級農業農村部門應當對專業化防治服務組織建檔立卡,并指導其在農業農村部“專業化統防統治管理系統”登記備案,實行動態管理,掌握本地服務組織基本情況和年度開展服務情況。
       
        (三)規范選擇作業實施主體。政府購買統防統治服務應根據防治對象、任務量,合理確定服務價格,破除唯低價中標現象,優先選用在農業農村部“專業化統防統治管理系統”中登記備案且裝備先進、作業能力強、服務信譽好的專業化防治服務組織。
       
        (四)強化督促檢查。省廳將采用霧滴測試卡檢測、防治效果評價、飛行軌跡查看等方式,對“一噴三防”“一噴多促”等重大統防統治行動隨機開展檢查,對組織混亂、作業質量差、群眾反響不好的地方給予通報批評。地方各級農業農村部門也要強化督促檢查,對存在作業造假、偷工減料、農藥藥害、殘留污染等坑農害農行為的服務組織,依法依規嚴肅處理,取消其登記備案資格。
       
        (五)發揮典型帶動作用。各地要注重經驗總結,挖掘管理科學、組織高效、服務質量好的典型案例進行宣傳引導,組織觀摩交流,逐步提升農作物病蟲害專業化防治整體水平。以適當形式向社會公開推介服務規范、作業質量優良、信譽良好的專業化防治服務組織。
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